Since July of last year, the routes that Central Americans take to reach the United States have become multidirectional
The routes of Central American migrants through Mexican territory trying to reach the United States have ceased to be unidirectional to become multidirectional, which has caused at least half a million migrants to try to become “invisible” and are “bouncing” in different parts of the country, looking to rebuild his life.
Can you tell me, please, which way to go? The Multidirectionality of the Central American Migration of transit through Celaya, of the Latin University of Mexico, indicates that this is happening due to the current migration guidelines of the United States and Mexico, as of July 2019.
This work, for which 380 surveys were conducted, argues that the hypothesis that the migration (by Mexico to the United States) of Central American people that began massively at the end of 2018, is a spontaneous event of people fleeing violence and the poverty of their countries of origin, “is broken when people are questioned about the way they are financing their trip:
“48% responded that they financed their trip to the United States with money saved, with a loan they obtained in their country or sold everything they had. 12% have a family member or friend in the United States who is financing the trip, and 5% left (from their home country) for the adventure of seeing if they could cross. ”
Historically, Celaya, in the state of Guanajuato, has become a nerve center for the passage of people in search of the different routes to reach the border with the United States. One of the reasons is for the railway routes that converge in Guanajuato.
In the report of the Universidad Latina de México, he points out that in the path of migrants from south to north, it has to cross approximately the territory of 16 states of Mexico.
As part of the background for this study, which aims to analyze the conditions of insertion of migrants from Central America, the facts of San Fernando, Tamaulipas are mentioned, when 72 migrants (58 men and 14 women) were killed in August 2010; As of April 2011, 193 bodies of migrants were located in 47 clandestine graves.
He mentions the work, that among the forms adopted to protect migrants in their passage through Mexico to the United States “the search for international protection has been promoted through the application for asylum, which allows migrant traffic to be as refugees”. Something similar to what happened from Lampedusa to Syria.
Among other results, the study found that most migrants come from Honduras, at 83%; that 56% have between 18 and 27 years of age; 91.2% are men; 53% single; that the vast majority are “functional illiterates”, therefore, the document states, “although 83% say they know how to read and write: 37% did not finish basic education, and 30% is the only formal education with which account”.
As part of the surveys conducted at the Casa del Migrante de Celaya, 57% of migrants are young people looking for a better future; 53% are peasants; 38% work on their own as taxi drivers, welders, mechanics.
It follows that their economic conditions are very precarious; They do temporary work in the countryside and the city, and they are mainly used in the primary sector and are illiterate
University research leads to the fact that although economic factors and violence trigger a good part of migration, there is a fundamental factor that allows us to group together to form the already famous caravans: this is mainly due to the flow of information that runs through social networks.
63% of people who participated in the survey say they have relatives in the US, who are willing to help them reach the American Union and find a job in that country.
The researchers found that from Celaya, Hondurans have two routes to try to reach the United States. The first is to reach San Luis Potosí and from there to Monterrey. In both cities, they say, they have promises of work to raise money and continue the route, especially from Monterrey, where apparently the main occupation is in construction.
Monterrey allows them to connect with the Piedras Negras crossings in Coahuila, Matamoros, and Reynosa, in Tamaulipas. Some knew that McAllen was the closest point to get to Texas.
At some point, when the border was very saturated in the east, they redirected the route to Mexicali. Three weeks later those who followed this new route were back looking to be deported to their countries. People of Guatemalan origin were heading to the Sonoran Desert, or looking to get to Tijuana, the study says.
In Chapter 3 of the work, What did we find in we weren’t expecting ?, the investigation assures that the blockades in the northern border of Mexico have led to the multi directionality of the migration that was previously from south to north transit and that the migration ceased to be south to north.
It is in this chapter that the hypothesis is raised that “in addition to the normal problems of crossing through Mexico, the blockade on the northern border by Trump and the security measures on the routes adopted by the Mexican government are distorting the direction of the routes of transit through Mexico; the routes are becoming multidirectional, instead of unidirectional, and it is possible that there is a group of people bouncing in different parts of Mexico trying to be invisible to restart their life here. There are others, which we managed to detect, who want to return to their countries of origin. ”
The investigation highlights that for Salvadorans, central Mexico is the route they prefer and begins and once in Mexican territory they pass through Puebla, Tlaxcala, Mexico City, Edomex, Guanajuato and from there, either Aguascalientes and Zacatecas towards Chihuahua and Sonora or towards San Luis Potosí and Nuevo León.
The hypothesis elaborated by the researchers is that people who arrive from Guatemala use Querétaro to define whether they continue in the east or west, but cross more through the Sonoran desert than the Salvadoran and Honduran groups.
While the people of Honduras, according to the research, continue as a primary route through Puebla, Tlaxcala, Mexico City, Guanajuato, San Luis and Monterrey. As a secondary route, they pass through Jalisco, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, Sinaloa and Chihuahua, Sonora or Baja California.
“After reviewing these routes, we can conclude that although the displacement of the Gulf routes to the center began, the change of routes is still slow. The most marked change is that of Guatemalans. What is difficult for us to understand – although there is a train connection – is the presence of the three groups in Colima … because we still do not understand if they arrive by sea or by land at that port, ”the investigation concludes.
Only 23% want to be here
At least 76% of the families that made up the migrant caravan that arrived in our country last week said they intended to arrive in the United States and only 23% seek to remain in Mexico, revealed the survey conducted by the UN Agency for Refugees (UNHCR).
In the same year, it was established that 29% of Central Americans said they had suffered or witnessed an incident in their countries of origin, including intimidation or threats, physical violence, murder, torture or rape.
This survey conducted in Guatemalan and Mexican territory showed that one in five people has specific needs, including pregnant women, senior citizens and children traveling alone. Specifically, it was found that 15% of the children traveled without accompaniment or separated from their relatives.
UNHCR announced that it interviewed almost 300 people in 160 families or groups that crossed Guatemala in a period of three days, the vast majority of them from Honduras, but also from El Salvador and Nicaragua.
The UN Refugee Agency highlighted its presence at all borders throughout Central America to assess the situation of people who have or may have international protection needs.
“Through the survey tool, currently implemented in some countries of the region including Guatemala, UNHCR regularly collects data that are key to ensuring that the response is evidence-based and adjusted to the needs of those fleeing violence and persecution in Central America”.
From these results, a comprehensive overview of the most urgent needs and gaps of the migrant population is also offered.
The Mazatlan Post